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Severe bleeding, if not contro11ed, is potentially fatal. It is of critical importance to stop the bleeding as quickly as possible.

Internal bleeding may occur after a serious injury or heavy fall, or result from medical conditions such as peptic ulcer disease or ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Bleeding into the tissues and cavities of the body can be life-threatening, and emergency hospital care is essential.

Whether the bleeding is external or internal, watch carefully for signs of SHOCK.

External bleeding

First aid treatment

  1. Assist the casualty to lie down comfortably so that the wound is accessible.
  2. Check that the wound does not contain a foreign body or protruding bone from FRACTURES. Do not remove a foreign body unless it is quite loose and close to the surface; otherwise apply a ring pad.
  3. If the wound is clear of protruding matter, apply direct pressure to it. When no sterile or improvised pad is available, use your hand to apply pressure until you can add a clean dressing and pad If the casualty is able to apply pressure with one or both hands, this is recommended to reduce the risk of cross­infection.
  4. When bleeding eases, bandage the wound firmly over the pad. Provided that there is no obvious fracture in a bleeding limb, support it in a raised position.
  5. Note that blood seeping through a bandage indicates that bleeding has not been controlled. Leave any dressing in position but replace the blood-soaked pad. Do not remove the pad or bandage when bleeding has stopped.
  6. Do not give the casualty anything to eat or drink.
  7. Monitor the casualty for SHOCK.
  8. Seek medical aid urgently.

Internal bleeding

Signs and symptoms

  • vomiting or coughing up blood
  • passing black or bloody faeces
  • passing,heavily bloodstained urine
  • abdominal pain and tenderness, rigid abdominal wall muscles
  • rapid, weak pulse
  • paleness, dizziness, faintness

First aid treatment

  1. Assist the casualty to lie down and loosen any tight clothing.
  2. Raise or bend the casualty's legs, unless there are suspected fractures.
  3. Seek medical aid urgently.
  4. Do not give the casualty anything to eat or drink.
  5. Monitor the casualty for SHOCK.

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