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Granuloma Annulare - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment


Definition

Granuloma annulare is a raised, bumpy or ring-shaped lesion which may occur singly or in groups on the skin. It appears as a rapidly growing vascular papule or nodule. Sometimes it appears at the site of a previous penetrating injury. . Granuloma annulare occurs most often in children and young adults, though it can affect people of all ages. Although the lesions may be unsightly, granuloma annulare usually causes no other signs or symptoms. The cause of granuloma annulare isn't known. It is a self-limited cosmetic disease without any systemic medical complications. On rare occasions, it may involve fascia and tendons and may cause sclerosis, lymphedema, and deformities such as joint ankylosis. The male-to-female ratio is 3:2. Approximately one half of cases of PG occur within the first 5 years of life.

Causes

  1. Granuloma annulare is most often in children and young adults. It is also slightly more common in girls.
  2. Occasionally, it may be associated with diabetes or thyroid disease.
  3. Granuloma annulare does not damage the general health, and is not infectious or due to allergies.
  4. Some viruses may also be responsible for this disease to occur. Some of the viruses are of HIV, Hepatitis C and EPV etc.
  5. This may also be a result of side effect of some medicines.
  6. Heredity may also responsible for granuloma annular disease. Granuloma annular observed in identical twins and siblings in several generations in some cases.
  7. Sometimes insect bites, TB skin testing may lead to cause this problem.

Symptoms

  1. There may appear yellowish or skin-colored bumps
  2. There may appear ringed red bumps on back of hands
  3. There may appear ringed red bumps on soles of feet
  4. There may appear ringed red bumps on back of lower
  5. There may appear multiple rings may be found.
  6. Rarely, granuloma annulare may appear as a firm nodule under the skin of the arms or legs.

Treatment

  1. Systemic steroids: Systemic steroids vary in strength. The beneficial effects as well as the side effects are proportional to the dose taken. So these should be used by prescription from a professional practitioner.
  2. Isotretinoin: It may also be used to cure this disease.
  3. Methotrexate: This in not very reliable still can be used in some cases.
  4. Photodynamic therapy: is an emerging new procedure being used by dermatologists to treat certain types of skin cancer. It is also useful in curing granuloma annulare.
  5. Corticosteroid topical creams such as clobetasol propionate used in disappearance and improve the appearance of the lesions. Depending on the thickness of the lesions and the strength of the cream, your doctor may direct you to cover the cream with bandages or an adhesive patch.
  6. Cryotherapy: In cryotherapy, your doctor applies liquid nitrogen to the affected area with a cotton-tipped applicator or a small instrument designed for applying extreme cold.
  7. Light therapy: It is used when the problem becomes severe. This treatment combines exposure to ultraviolet light (phototherapy) with drugs that help make your skin more receptive to the effects of ultraviolet light.
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